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What is able to do a volcanic eruption?
Geological History: the volcano of Thera

                   For decades, scholars have debated whether the eruption of the Thera volcano in the Aegean more than 3,500 years ago, brought about the mysterious collapse of Minoan civilization at the peak of its glory…

                The volcanic isle (whose remnants are known as Santorini) lay just 110km from Minoan Crete, so it seemed quite reasonable, that its fury could have accounted for the fall of the Minoan civilisation….

               This idea suffered a blow in 1987 when Danish scientists studying cores from the Greenland icecap reported evidence that Thera exploded in 1645 BC, some 150 years before the usual date

               That put so much time between the natural disaster and the Minoan decline, that the linkage came to be widely doubted, seeming far-fetched at best.

              Now, scientists at Columbia University, the University of Hawaii and other institutions are renewing the proposed connection…

         New findings, they say, show that Thera's upheaval was far more violent than previously calculated -- many times larger than the 1883 Krakatoa eruption, which killed more than 36,000 people. They say the Thera blast's cultural repercussions were equally large, rippling across the eastern Mediterranean for decades, even centuries…

     “ It had to have had a huge impact," said Floyd W. McCoy, a University of Hawaii geologist who has studied the eruption for decades and recently proposed that it was much more violent than previously thought…

        The scientists say Thera's outburst produced deadly waves and dense clouds of volcanic ash over a vast region, crippling ancient cities and fleets, setting off climate changes, ruining crops and sowing wide political unrest.
           For Minoan Crete, the scientists see direct and indirect consequences. McCoy discovered that towering waves from the eruption that hit Crete were up to 15m high, smashing ports and fleets and severely damaging the maritime economy.
    Other scientists found indirect, long-term damage. Ash and global cooling from the volcanic pall caused wide crop failures in the eastern Mediterranean, they said, and the agricultural woes in turn , set off political upheavals that undid Minoan friends and trade…
         "Imagine island states without links to the outside world," William B. F. Ryan, a geologist at Columbia's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, told a meeting of the American Geophysical Union.
         Compelling evidence
Scientists who link Thera to the Minoan decline say the evidence is still emerging and in some cases sketchy. Even so, they say it is already compelling enough to have convinced many archaeologists, geologists and historians that the repercussions probably amounted to a death blow for Minoan Crete.
          In 1939, Spyridon Marinatos proposed that the eruption wrecked Minoan culture on Thera and Crete. He envisioned the damage as done by associated earthquakes and tsunamis…
      While geologists found tsunamis credible, they doubted the destructive power of Thera's earthquakes, saying volcanic ones tend to be relatively mild. The debate simmered for decades.
   In the mid-1960s, scientists dredging up ooze from the bottom of the Mediterranean began to notice a thick layer of ash that they linked to Thera's eruption. They tracked it over thousands of square miles.
   Such clues helped geologists estimate the amount of material Thera spewed into the sky and the height of its eruption cloud, main factors in the Volcanic Explosively Index. Its scale goes from zero to eight and is logarithmic, so each unit represents a tenfold increase in explosive power. Thera was given a VEI of 6.0, on a par with Krakatoa in 1883.
   The similarity to Krakatoa, which lies between Sumatra and Java, helped experts better envision Thera's wrath.      Krakatoa hurled rock and ash more than 35km high and its blasts could be heard 4,800km away. Its giant waves killed thousands of people. Despite the power of Thera, the Danish scientists' evidence raised doubts about its links to the Minoan decline.Another blow landed in 1989 when scholars on Crete found, above a Thera ash layer, a house that had been substantially rebuilt in the Minoan style. It suggested at least partial cultural survival. By 1996, experts like Jeremy B. Rutter, head of classics at Dartmouth College, judged the chronological gap too extreme for any linkage. "No direct correlation can be established" between the volcano and the Minoan decline, he concluded.          
        As doubts rose about this linkage, scientists found more evidence suggesting that Thera's eruption had been unusually violent and disruptive over wide areas. Scientific maps drawn in the 1960s and 1970s showed its ash as falling mostly over nearby waters and Aegean islands.
      By the 1990's, however, the affected areas had been found to include lands of the eastern Mediterranean from Anatolia to Egypt. Scientists found ash from Thera at the bottom of the Black Sea and Nile delta.
        Massive anomaly
   Peter I. Kuniholm, an expert at Cornell University on using tree rings to establish dates, found ancient trees in a burial mound in Anatolia, what now is in the Asian part of Turkey. For half a decade those trees had grown three times as fast as normal, apparently because Thera's volcanic pall turned hot, dry summers into seasons that were unusually cool and wet.
"We've got an anomaly, the biggest in the past 9,000 years," Kuniholm said in an interview. Two years ago McCoy stumbled on more evidence suggesting that Thera's ash fall, had been unusually wide and heavy. During a field trip to Anafi, an island some 32km east of Thera, he found to his delight that the authorities had just cut fresh roads that exposed layers of Thera ash up to 3m thick a surprising amount that distance from the eruption. Greek colleagues showed him new seabed samples taken off the Greek mainland, suggesting that more ash blew westward than scientists had realized. 
    Factoring in such evidence, McCoy calculated that Thera had a VEI of 7.0 -- what geologists call colossal and exceedingly rare.
   In the past 10,000 years only one other volcano has exploded with that kind of gargantuan violence: Tambora, in Indonesia, in 1816, it produced an ash cloud in the upper atmosphere that reflected sunlight back into space and produced a year without a summer. The cold led to ruinous harvests, hunger and even famine in the US, Europe and Russia. » I presented this evidence last summer at a meeting," McCoy recalled, "and the comment from the other volcanologists was, `Hey, it was probably larger than Tambora…
    Some prominent archaeologists have concluded that the volcano's long-term repercussions meant the end of Minoan Crete…
    They argue that the revolt of nature over the predictable certainties of Minoan religion probably crippled the authority of the priestly ruling class, weakening its hold on society…


xeste3: La fille voilee
Pourquoi les femmes se voilent ?

Défendre la laicite est l'explication officielle de l'Etat à l'interdiction de l'apparence voilée aux écoles publiques....
Mais de quoi il s'agit comme coutume et quelle  est sa symbolisation?




On dit parmi d’autres, que ce sont  les hommes  qui les imposent  a porter la voile.Es que c’est juste ?
Les fresques d'Akrotiri montrent une explication différente qui peut servir a résister a ce coutume d'une façon constante et logique , car la voile est associe avec la virginité , l'enfance et la pureté , valeurs dépassées dans une société ou la liberté a son prix et il est strictement associer avec la productivité , la libération des forces individuels pour se faire accepter par la société ouverte ou chacune et chacun est initie par ses compétences , sa maturité et sa compétitivité les valeurs ajoutées de la lutte collective pour vivre mieux toutes et tous en solidarité qui dépasse les limites de la commune ... 
 La femme –enfant,  qui représente symboliquement la voile ,  pathétique et dépendante 
est l'image d'un conservatisme absolu, isolante et  faible...
Les filles de demain lutte  encore pour gagner l'égalité des chances, pour montrer aux hommes qu’ils sont près  de se débarrasser du voile du passe pour  conduire eux mêmes et leurs enfantes,  a l'avenir avec optimisme et dynamisme...



Les jeunes boxers...
La rentrée scolaire...

Enceignant[e]s, faites connaître  aux élèves

 la merveille du monde préhistorique d'Akrotiri!

 Décorez vos salles de cours avec les symboles d'amour.

 Offrez les l'espoir a vivre en Paix et en Harmonie avec la mère  Nature...











La France c'est une mosaïque des cultures qui datent depuis la Préhistoire!
La mosaïque de la culture Francaise et les fresques d'Akrotiri...
Chaque symbole est avant tout , un des principes pour chaque civilisation...
Le Président de la République Francaise cette année, a change le protocole de la parade 
de 14 Juillet en invitant les 27 Pays de l'Union Européen a participer a la fête de la République:


 Les mots LIBERTE, EGALITE, FRATERNITE, sont de valeurs symboliques, sans frontières géographiques,





 et notre Pays aujourd'hui ,veut partager sa culture de tolérance avec le monde , pour faire le rêve humain





 d'une vie digne est libre , realite ,ou chacune et chacun , aura sa place , en égalité avec des autres...
Pourtant le bleue de la mer et du ciel , le blanc de la purite corporelle, émotionnelle et spirituelle





et le rouge du vins mais aussi du sang du sacrifice ,  a la lutte pour gagner tous ça qu'on dispose aujourd’hui,





 sont des longues principes humaines qui commencent leur trajets historiques depuis la préhistoire....
Les fresques d'Akrotiri sont les témoignages les plus anciens  de ce chemin de mélange





 des différentes religions et cultures, qui montrent la continuité des valeurs éternelles





 que nous voulions préserver en forme des bijoux ou des tableaux , pour mieux connaître





  les origines de notre civilisation a sa diversite....






La Grece et le lieu des rencontres de 3 Continents!
Qui sont les Grecs?
Santorin reste toujours le destination le plus important 
pour ceux qui cherchent 
les origines de l'Homme et de sa Culture...
    Entre 3 Continents , les îles Grecs  sont des sources d'information concernant  
les influences culturels et l'évolution d'esprit qui détermine l'identité social et religieuse 
aussi bien qu’ économique , la recette de globalisation depuis la Préhistoire 
et l'aventure humaine a la recherche d'exploitation des ressources naturelles....
  Notre site présente l'image de la société préhistorique d'Akrotiri , 
pour faire connaître a ses lecteurs ,les donnes  d'une civilisation ,
avec beaucoup des similarités avec  la notre, aujourd'hui...


les boxeurs de fresquesGay pride in Santorini!

It must be mentioned the fact that Santorini was, is and always will be,
a gay destination as well! The reason is that the island's beauty and proximity
 with Myconos, has been attractive for homosexuals  who need to escape from
 the ghetto -style ,as it terns to be Myconos back in the '80 s...Franco's bar has been mentioned as one of the most special ones in a world level because of it's classic music and incredible views...Franco has gone now but the bar keep it's reputation as well as the island itself...It may be difficult to kiss your beloved in a public view during July and August but certainly you will feel comfortable anywhere , without wandering eyes and whispering across your way!
Back on the '90's you could practice nudism in Perivolos, but definitely with so much people around it has been stopped, as agglomeration has reached the beach! 
The most recommended area is still Oia,  because of the cool  night life style ....



The wall paintings of Thera: AKRON replica of the monkeys  fresco...

Depuis le 1er Mai,  le" Centre de Conférence Nomikos " ,a ouvert ses portes au publique ,
pour apprécier  les fameuses reproductions des fresques....L'oeuvre  effectue a Lyon ,par la même équipe scientifique qui
a reproduit les fresques de cave Lascaux, a Dordogne,
est l'unique témoignage au monde, d'une société préhistorique ou chaque femme était habillee , avait des bijoux différentes des autres , maquillage et rouge a lèvres! Le Centre se trouve après la telepherique, 10 min a pieds de l'hôtel Atlantis... Aux autres pages de notre site vous pouvez lire l'analyse des fresques et voir la collection des bijoux inspirée et enregistrée de cette art...
Si vous comptez a visiter Santorin, vous pouvez également voir cette unique collection a Oia , a la bijouterie O.R.O
a la route principale du village [de la cote de la caldera]....

Si vous préférez  une copie des fresques pour votre maison ou bureau, il faut absolument visiter"AKRON" 
a Megalochori car a la bas exposent  deux artistes réputes, sur la reproduction des oeuvres d'art et plus particulièrement 
les fresques...







Santorin Grece la maison des femmes Avez vous vu de femmes de 4000 ans avec des bijoux ,maquillage et rouge a levres?








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